1-  The bacteria, especially legionella, exists in every water system. Legionella can be found in cooling towers, airconditioning systems, central air conditioning ducts,  potable water pipes, tanks and fittings, fountains and swimming pools. It can easily multiply in high numbers. Legionella is found worldwide in natural fresh water habitats.

2-  Chlorine ( Cl2 ) is used almost universally in the treatment of  water in general because of its toxic effect on harmful bacteria. However, there is growing evidence to show that chlorine in water actually poses a greater long term danger than the bacteria the chlorine is used to eliminate. Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons which have been found to be potentially cancer causing. THMs are produced when CHLORINE ( Cl2 ) is introduced into water containing organic constituents and can either be ingested or absorbed through the skin. Water always contains some ppm of organic materials. Scientific studies have linked chlorine and chlorination by-products to cancer of the bladder, liver, stomach, rectum, and colon, as well as, disease, arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), anaemia, high blood pressure and allergic reactions. The contamination of water is directly related to the degree of contamination of our environment.

3-  There is Environmental Agency pressure due to the dangerous effect of using chlorine. The chemical element, chlorine, is a corrosive, poisonous, greenish-yellow gas that has a suffocating odour and is 2 1/2 times heavier than air. The use of chlorine was believed to be safe until recent years when problems such as scale and corrosion, health, air pollution, environmental damage, short residual disinfections periods especially in hot climates, inability to eradicate Legionella and  remove bio-films were found to be associated with its use. Some species of bacteria and strains of algae become very resistant to chlorine.  All these dangerous effects of chlorine have been well solved by the well-established technique of Free Radical   Technology which claims important advantages over chlorination /chemicals system.

4-  Ozonation: Ozone ( O3) is used as an alternative for water disinfections. It is a very effective  oxidiser and disinfectant. In fact, ozone ( O3) is able to kill the E-coli bacteria 25 times faster than hypochlorous acid, but there are some side effects of ozone which create water quality issues where the disinfections of water is concerned. Ozone ( O3) has a very short residual disinfections period of 22 minutes. This means that ozone must be continuously generated as long as contaminants are being introduced. A sanitizer should be available to provide reserve-killing power, for which normally chlorine is used. The other issue is that when there are higher levels of suspended particulate matter, the bulk of ozone will be used for micro-flocculation rather than sanitation and consumed as quickly as it is generated. This leads to the addition of more ozone in the water. Ozone is heavier than air and is only partially soluble in water. 3 to 4 ppm ozone (  O3) has to be produced for 0.4 ppm to be dissolved in water. The bulk of the ozone is, therefore, released into the atmosphere with potentially harmful effects. Extra ozone ( O3) will float on the surface of the water, and this may be inhaled. It is well known that ozone is toxic and can damage the lungs and liver.

5-  Ultra-Violet Irradiation ( UV ): UV has been used for water disinfections but it has no residual power. The disinfecting action on water being irradiated comes to an end as soon as the irradiated water passes from the zone of UV irradiation. Furthermore, any suspended matter in the water may screen and protect bacteria from the disinfecting action of the radiation. The water is open to re-infection as soon as it passes from the UV irradiation zone. UV radiation has no application where the water is turbid. Any scale formation on the surface of tubes severely reduces the efficiency of the disinfections power. UV disinfections cannot eradicate bio-film build up because they do not travel with the flow of water, their effectiveness ending when the water leaves the UV zone.

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